Marble Tile Flooring For Small Homes

Is it a good idea to tile the whole house?

The virtues of ceramic tile for bathrooms and kitchens are well known, but many of those advantages also make it a good choice for living rooms. Ceramic tile is durable and easy to maintain. It can handle even the highest traffic locations without showing much wear. Spills, chips, and other accidents aren’t an issue provided the floor was installed correctly. And the design advantages are undeniable: Modern printing techniques give you a wealth of aesthetic options for creating a floor that is truly unique to your living area. For example, there are now porcelain mosaics that look so much like exotic hardwood planks that you will have trouble telling the difference.


The costs of a ceramic tile floor are comprised of two elements. These include the price of the materials themselves and the cost of installation labor.

When purchased at big-box stores or tile specialty outlets, ceramic tile can range from less than $1 per square foot for plain solid-color tiles to just under $20 per square foot for porcelain tiles that mimic the look of fine marbles or woods. At the high end, prices rival that of natural stone tiles, but very elegant and serviceable tiles are available in the $3 to $7 per square foot range.

Installation costs can vary widely, too, depending on the size of the job, geographic location, and even where your building is located. Even when installation services are purchased from a national retailer, labor costs in some regions of the country may be much higher than those in another region. However, a 2020 national survey placed the costs for standard ceramic tile installation at about $5 per square foot. Installation of porcelain or mosaic tiles will be somewhat higher than this due to more complicated installation requirements, but it’s rare that you will need to pay more than $8 per square foot for installation. Larger jobs actually tend to be cheaper on a cost-per-square-footage basis. There may be a minimum charge of $300 or so for small installations

Ceramic Tile Options

There are several options to consider when you are purchasing ceramic tile:

  • Size: Ceramic tiles are generally sold in squares of 12″ x 12″, 6″ x 6″, 18″ x 18″, and 24″x 24,” but a growing trend, especially for porcelain tiles, is for the pieces to be formed in rectangular planks form designed to resemble hardwood. ​Sizing tip: In larger living rooms, use larger tiles that are proportional to space. In smaller spaces, smaller tiles will provide visual interest, making them seem more spacious.
  • Patterns: Because they can be printed with almost any color or image, ceramic tiles allow you to create very intricate patterns. Vibrant, contrasting colors can be used, mixed with different shapes and designs to build a floor that will perfectly express your tastes.
  • Solid vs. mosaics: Mosaics in their modern form are ceramic tiles assembled into mesh-backed sheets of very small 1″ x 1″ or 2″ x 2″ tiles. Originally, styling with mosaic tile was a highly prized means of architectural expression, and this modern form of ancient art can bring a truly unique and vivid sense of style to your space.
  • Borders: Contrasting tiles can be cut to size and then used as borders to accent the outer boundaries of a living room. Many ceramic tiles are offered in “families” that include various complementary border tiles and cove perimeter tiles.
  • Accent tiles: These are unique pieces that are placed as accents or emblems within an otherwise normal ceramic flooring installation. They may contain a unique picture or have a vibrantly contrasting color adorning their surface. The purpose is to draw the eye, creating a sense of decorative beauty within the pattern of the flooring.

The Benefits of Tiles For Your Entire Home

Cost and Convenience

Tiles certainly have many advantages. First of all, they’re cheap and very easy to put into place. This means that the initial cost of renovating will be low. Better yet, is that you’ll also be able to replace tiles individually should one get damaged. If you have wallpaper in a room and that gets scratched, then you’ll have to do at least a whole new drop, whereas something like marble will be expensive to replace. With a ceramic tile however, you can quickly and easily cement the new one on to replace a damaged one – make sure when you buy the tiles that you buy lots of spares for this reason as if they’ve ceased production of your tiles you’ll be stuck with a big square gap in your pattern.


Another advantage of ceramic tiles is that they’re easy to clean. As the surface is flat and shiny there’s no way that mess can get caught in nooks and crannies or get soaked up into the tiles (which also means they will be less likely to mould than say paint or carpet). In a kitchen or a bathroom a lot of liquids are used and regularly spilled which on a carpet or wallpaper would cause serious damage – fortunately with ceramic tiles it can simply and easily be wiped off with a jay cloth meaning the room will generally appear much cleaner than it would with other kinds of flooring.

This makes tiling a great choice for many other parts of your home – your utility room for example is an area that can be prone to damage, so it will also benefit from the resilience of having tiles. Likewise, tiles can work great in living rooms if you constantly have people coming in and out. This is also true for conservatories and porch areas, and is doubly true if you have dogs and cats that bring in all kinds of much. Being able to simply wipe those marks clean is a godsend. And similarly useful, is the fact that any moisture collecting around a window will be less likely to cause permanent water damage and mold.


Another great thing about tiles is that they’re so popular, and this means that there are a massive wealth of different styles and patterns available. You can go with simple plain white for a very contemporary minimalist look, gaggles of swans dotted around if you have young children using the bathroom, a different pattern or even paint your own designs onto the ceramic (which is easy enough to do). Mosaic tiles are particularly attractive in modern decors, as are ceramic and porcelain tiles that are designed to look like granite or limestone. Dark colors, with contrasting patterns made from mirror tiles and other details can be extremely striking in any room.

Even when tiles don’t take up an entire floor or an entire wall, they can still be used in more subtle ways to add to your décor. More basically you can just create borders and skirting boards, or can outline your utilities. This can create a consistent pattern throughout your home, resulting in a more cohesive décor.

You don’t even need to have the same pattern on every tile – but can instead have mostly white with random images dotted around the room. Again this is something you could only achieve with tiles.

Note that ceramic tiles typically have more patterns and colors available as compared with porcelain – keep this in mind when making your choice.

Pros of Tile Flooring


Another benefit of tile flooring is that it is resistant to water. There is a protective layer on top of the material, so it’s stain- and water-resistant. Again, this is important in bathrooms and kitchens, as the ceramic tile will last much longer than other types of material. It also resists temperatures with high humidity, so you don’t have to worry about it being ruined during the hot and muggy summer months. Any environment that is moist will benefit from having ceramic tiles.

If you buy unglazed tile, you will need to seal it to protect the surface from any liquids it might encounter. In particular, the grout lines between the tiles can be susceptible to moisture, so make sure those are sealed. Otherwise, water can get down deep into the tiles, which will weaken their installation and put them at risk for mold grow. This will lead to costly problems down the road you will need to take care of.


Tile flooring is tough and the tiles are hard to crack. When you get a quality installation done, the tiles can last up to 20 years or even longer if you do a good job maintaining them. Even if one tile does crack, it is often only because of a severe impact, and you’ll find it easy to replace that tile. This means you’ll be able to keep your overall cost down, as you won’t have to replace tiles on a regular basis.

Cons of Tile Flooring


Tile flooring will not absorb or hold onto heat well, which means it gets quite cold during the winter. When installed in the home, this means your feet will experience a shock when they step on cold flooring first thing in the morning. This is important to consider if you’ll be putting tiles in a public place in your business where it’d be uncomfortable for your clients. The one advantage of this is that during the summer, it will feel great as people step on the cold floor when it is hot out.


Tile flooring is heavy, which means it is not the best choice for upper-story installations. If it is necessary to put tile flooring on the top level of a business establishment, a professional should first check the structure’s integrity. You need to make sure you’re not putting on extra stress that it can’t handle.

Slippery and Hard

While tile flooring is easy to clean because of its hardness, this means it is not necessarily comfortable to stand on. Resilient floors can often be softened with padded underlayment, but tile flooring cannot. Therefore, it doesn’t make for the best material for those who need to stand for hours at a time. However, you can put area rugs or throw rugs in the places where people stand the most, such as in front of a kitchen sink or behind the counter at the cash register.

Due to it being hard, that also means tile flooring is slippery. As a business owner, you want to prevent all accidents when you can. Therefore, this shouldn’t be installed in areas where water or liquid are frequently spilled on the floor, as this can injure your employees and leave a mess. The same goes for public bathrooms, as you do not want a lawsuit on your hands from a customer slipping on the wet tile flooring.

There are both pros and cons to installing tile flooring. You will want to consider several factors, such as where you plan on installing it, what your budget is, and who will be walking or standing on it the most. Many people love how durable it is and that it’s resistant to water, which is essential in a place such as a bathroom or a kitchen. However, others don’t like how heavy and cold the tiles are. You’ll have to decide which factors are important.

Successful Marketing Ideas For Home Builder

Features Not To Forget When Building A Custom Home

When building a new home it’s easy to include unique features that would require demolition and reconstruction should you want to add them later. Here’s a list of some things you might want to think about when building your new home.

Extra Electrical Outlets

Especially with today’s electronic gadgets, electrical outlets are used more than ever.  Add extras near where the beds will be, around the entertainment centre, on the kitchen island, around the fireplace mantle, under the windows, in the bathroom, the garage, outdoors and even under the awnings (for Christmas lights.)

Heated And Insulated Garage

Even though your garage won’t need to be at room temperature, heating and insulation will make a massive difference over the winter for both your vehicle and yourself if you need to be doing any work out there. The heated garage will also prevent frozen pipes.

Garage Hot Water Faucet

If you’re fitting your garage with a cold water faucet, it doesn’t take a whole lot of effort to add a hot water faucet as well.

Garage Floor Drain

A floor drain in your garage will allow for easy cleaning of the garage floor as well as allow for the draining of water runoff from your vehicles.  And in the case of unexpected flooding, a the floor drain may become your saviour.

What Not to Forget When Building a House

Building a home is a complex job, and if this is your first time working with a homebuilder, you may be worried about forgetting important details. Rest assured that we’ve got lots of experience with homes of all types and will make sure that we turn over a house that you’ll build memories in for decades.

Over the years, customers and building staff have accumulated a list of helpful things not to forget when building a house. These may not all apply to your particular project, but hope that by sharing them you can pick out a few extras that make life easier.


Once you’ve picked out a floor plan and started selecting paint colors, furniture won’t be far behind. Perhaps you’ll be moving furniture you already own into the new house, and perhaps you’ll be purchasing some new pieces. Either way, you can start to think about where these pieces will go. In the family room, if you already have an idea of where furniture might go and what it will look like, can work with the electricians to place outlets in the most convenient spots

A mid-room outlet – usually set in the floor, where it can be disguised by a sofa, chair or table, can be a great if you want to put a lamp somewhere away from the walls. Without the mid-room outlet you have to consider using long cords, which most folks would rather not see running across their floor.

Thinking about outlets is a good idea in other rooms. Are you planning a mudroom or hall space where the kids (or the grownups) will leave coats, backpacks and the like? That sort of space can be the perfect spot to include an outlet, allowing you to charge your phone in a spot where you’re sure to see it before heading out the door each day. These mudrooms or hall spaces are also great spots to include extra drawers or storage cubbies. There’s always extra stuff that needs to go near the door, and a bit of advance planning can really improve your happiness with the finished house.

How to request quotes from builders

It’s hard to overstate how important it is to choose the right builder. Cringeworthy stories about cost blowouts, disputes and miscommunications would be far fewer and further between if people were better informed about what they should be looking for when choosing a builder for their home, and if communications and expectations were clearer at the quotation stage.

Building your house is obviously a big deal – there are all kinds of fascinating things that can go completely wrong, and there’s a lot of money involved. Thankfully though, there’s much you can do to avoid unnecessary grief and to ensure everything goes off smoothly.

How to find good builders

Great builders aren’t hard to find – but just picking random builders out of the phone book because they have a snazzy logo or a name that tickles your funny bone isn’t the best way to go about it. Neither, for that matter, is entrusting the process to an indiscriminate middle-man quote service. It’s really important to do a bit of homework for yourself. Talk through quotes with the people providing them, thoroughly check references and credentials, and find someone you believe you can genuinely work well with.

Building designers and architects often work with the same trusted contractors who they know will do justice to their designs. A recommendation from your building designer or architect is usually a great place to start. Even if they aren’t able to recommend anyone specifically, most designers will be able to help you to find, understand and assess quotes.

Asking friends and family for recommendations is also a smart way to go. Just make sure you’re asking for genuine recommendations based on their own experiences with contractors, rather than simply asking if they ‘know anyone’. The builder’s credentials and professionalism are all that counts. A builder who’s a friend-of-a-friend who feels like they’re doing someone a favour (or who’s too ‘familiar’) may treat your project as a lower priority.

What are the things to consider before building a house?

Answering from a Middle Class point of view. All points made below are from my own experience.


(Negative shade) : You will see a lot in every nook and corners (mainly in materials purchase) while building the house.

(Positive shade) : You generate a lot of job to many people and thus by many ways you add to the development of country.

So things you need to know to save money and build a quality house are as follows:

Always go for labour contract than material contract (Unless you are really busy or if your site is far away from the construction building). You can save 15–25% of your budget by doing this.


If labour contract then be ready with the contacts of builder, carpenter, plumber, electrician, painter. If you get some good reference then good, otherwise plan a trip to their older and on-going projects for the sake of understanding the genuinity and construction quality.

Have a plan, do multiple revisions by speaking to family members on their needs, visiting some good homes, or now a days lot of good building are showcased online (you find many good houses in YouTube channels like eBangaloreProperty and many)

Get the plan done by related engineers . Talk to them as they can provide expert opinions on basic vastu and they can redesign to have more space with less walls, also beam and pillar positions can be discussed. (Planning is must for loan approval). Get it approved from local administration body (like BBMP)

Get 2D and 3D plan for the plan (When you visualize your home, believe me you will get a better clarity). If you have time, you can do it by yourself on websites like Free 3D Home Planner | Design a House Online: Planner5D and many such websites.

(Take more time in this step) Your most of the budget goes on Steel, Cement, stones, wood and bricks so plan your vendor pre-hand. You can visit – Manufacturers Suppliers Exporters Directory,Exporter Manufacturer , I really found some good sellers there, you will also get some basic idea on prices of all the materials over there. You can save a lot but doing proper research and bargaining here.

If you are planning for borewell then nothing to worry about water, otherwise make a deal with water supplier (water tanker or lender) pre-hand.

Have a rough estimation in hand, allocate budget. Something like:

Labour cost would be around 1/5th the budget

Kitchen with modular style would be 1.5-2L INR

Plumbing 1–2L INR

Painting 1–2L INR

Flooring 3–4L INR(Use vetrified tiles for flooring over marble/ granite)

Wood (doors and windows) ~3L INR (Aluminium windows are preferred as they are cheaper, better and save space)

Gates/ Steel Grill -1L INR

Go for Materials like M-Sand for construction, P-Sand for plastering and hollow block bricks which are better and cheaper.

Steel can be of any company as long as it bears ISI sign. Same goes with cement too. Mostly the well known companies are costly just because they spend on advertising it. Use 53grade cement for pillar and slab while 43 grade/PPC for wall construction.


Try visiting the site atleast once a day.

Setup camera on the site by renting out construction site cameras (they are costly but you will be relieved to see proper amount of bricks being unloaded, can monitor people working, also keeps place secure) or setup a temporary shed and hire a watchman. If you are staying closer or planning to move near the site then you can avoid camera and watchman.

Curing cement wall is a very important process, if you are doing it then do it atleast twice a day and be generous in watering the walls, as it is must in order to prevent cracks on the wall.

Always buy cement in bulk(wholesale) as they are 15–20INR cheaper.

Do lot of research before purchasing bath fittings, electric wires etc. I found some deals cheaper than online prices.

Go for ready made doors as they are cheap and durable.

Always remember to smile and speak really politely to all workers.


the place we come back to each and every day. We believe that GREAT DESIGN helps hide the clutter, not pretend your kids never make it. We believe that a passion for detail means you get the style you want. We believe service is a person who knows your name, and your family’s name

success is due to our deep commitment to innovation and continued evolution to benefit customers, such as:

display homes being open 7 days for your convenience

Experts guiding you through each stage of the building journey

A state-wide CustomerCARE program

proudest milestones are those which benefit customers, demonstrating truly care about you. Everything do is done to ensure you will always love being


Selecting your new home’s look and feel is one of the most exciting and overwhelming stages of the home building journey. team of interior design professionals will guide you through each and every selection, to bring your vision of your home dream to life.


are passionate about helping achieve their goal of building their dream home. have a long standing relationship with Bank of Us, specialists in construction home loans. A Bank of us expert is on hand making the home finance process simpler, thanks to doing everything all in the one place with one team.

Affordable Self Unloading Services Moving With Household Freight

What is moving labor and why do you need it?

Moving is difficult – if you have ever moved house, you will know how true this is. Every stage and part of the moving process is difficult, each one more so than the other. And while some aspects of the relocation endeavor are emotionally difficult (leaving your comfort zone, parting with close friends, braving the unknown, etc.), others are physically difficult – packing your entire household, running back and forth on various tasks, loading and unloading the moving truck, and so on.

These laborious moving tasks not only drain your energy and your time (not to mention your motivation and excitement), but may even pose a risk to your health, your property, and your belongings – just imagine dropping a heavy piece of furniture on your feet or on the polished wooden floo

Your best option is to hire full-service movers, of course – they will do all the work for you and will perform your move in the safest, fastest, and most efficient way possible. If you cannot afford their services, however, or if you prefer to have greater control over the process, you may decide to rent a moving truck and transport your belongings to your new home yourself.

What is moving labor?

Moving labor professionals provide flexible moving services to people who plan to move themselves but need help moving furniture and other heavy household items, loading the moving truck, unloading it at the final destination, or performing some other laborious moving tasks. Some moving laborers specialize in loading and unloading services only. Others are full-service moving companies that offer labor services as well.

How does it work?

If you choose to pack and transport your belongings yourself, but can’t (or don’t want to) do all the heavy lifting on your own, you can hire moving labor to help you load and unload the moving truck. Your moving helpers will literally take the weight off your shoulders and provide you with all the moving assistance you need.

How to properly unload a moving truck?

After all the packing and moving preparations, and after the relocation is over, al that is left is to unload a moving truck! And this is not something you can do without having a plan. You will have to make sure everything is prepared for your upcoming unloading.

What to do before you unload a moving truck?

Before you even begin your relocation, you have to start with a good packing preparation. Once you have found all the packing materials needed it is time to pack your home. Categorize every item in your home! You can do it by rooms they belong to, or by any other category you desire! After that, you can use bright colored markers to label the moving boxes!  That will make unloading a moving truck easier and stressless!  It is important to write down the contents on the moving boxes because later on, it will be easier to figure out where to put them after the move.

It is very important to label them because you are making both yours and your movers job much easier! That way they will know how to handle your boxes and how to properly load them into the moving truck.

Moving truck and packing order

Safety should always be your number one top priority when moving. Especially if you are about to [plan your long-distance relocation. Not only should you be careful about it, but also you need to know how to load the moving truck. In order to unload all the items properly, you have to know this part as well. Not to mention that it will keep your items safe from any damages that might happen. Now, there is only one way to load them into the moving truck

Clean your home before moving in

One thing is for certain! You need to have your new home cleaned before you move in and unpack! This is the perfect opportunity to reach all the places you can’t reach normally when there is furniture around. Also, it will be easier to do everything while there are no furniture and boxes laying around

Packing Tips

Full Service Moving Packages

With convenient service add-ons and additional liability options, makes it easy to enhance your moving experience.

Packing Checklists

Organize your packing supplies, take steps to protect your items and prepare for moving day with one of our easy-to-follow, downloadable packing checklists.

Packing Videos

Learn how to pack each room in your home with step-by-step tutorials from the video library.

Packing Information

Learn packing techniques developed by professionals and get helpful advice on streamlining the packing process with packing tips.

Unpacking Services

Unpacking tends to take longer than planned, or it becomes one more stressful thing to add to the list. can help you get organized with unpacking services that allow you to focus on more important things like settling into your new home.

Loading And Unloading Services


care for your home as much as care for your belongings. Before a single carton is put onto our truck, protect your house from any potential knicks or scraps. Floor runners will be laid and bannisters will be wrap to ensure your house is exactly how found it.


On moving day, a record detailing what items went onto truck will be taken by your driver. The listing gives a clear idea of what should come of truck at your new home. At your destination, you’ll be able to verify every carton and piece of furniture that’s unloaded off the truck and into your new home.

Condition Assessment

note the condition your furniture is in prior to loading it onto the truck. This gives you an accurate view of what your items should look like when they arrive at your new home.


Your belongings will be packed with speed and care when you add this service to your move. crew will arrive the day before or the morning of your move to prepare your possesions for moving day.


Unpacking your belongings can be just as tedious as packing them. happy to take this on for you so you can enjoy your new space faster. Ask your moving professional to add unpacking to your move

Packing & unloading Services

Ensuring the Safety of Your Belongings

The most time-consuming part of moving is the packing and unloading of items. are here to make your move as easy as possible. professionals at the moving process, so let make a plan on how to pack, transport, and unpack all of your belongings strategically.

Ensuring Safe Packing Methods

One of the top concerns in packing is doing it in such a way that your belongings stay protected. Many have experienced the turmoil of discovering that certain valuable items have been damaged or even destroyed during the move. Whether you plan to move on your own or wish to use residential or commercial moving services, can ensure that your goods are packed in the safest possible manner and that they arrive safely to your new home or business.

Service Includes

Moving a home or business is often a very strenuous and time-consuming task. Some people spend several months packing. As the boxes accumulate and the moving deadline approaches, it can be easy to become stressed, overwhelmed, and exhausted. In addition, after the move is complete, it’s hard to find time to get it all unpacked. Some people have boxes remaining to be emptied even after a year.

The packing and unloading moving service we provide involves:






Each of these tasks is handled by highly skilled movers whose backgrounds have been checked and verified, so your belongings are 100% safe in their hands.

Moving deal with the time-consuming task of packing and unloading. are ready for items of any shape, size, and weight and are prepared to invest the time necessary to start and finish this project efficiently. years of experience in methods and techniques of planning, packing, moving, and unloading shine above the competition

Before Hiring Live Music For A Corporate Party For Crucial Ingredients Event Planner Must Know

What are the characteristics of a special event?

The special events sector of the industry broadly consists of private events, sporting events, public events, and fairs & festivals. They are considered ‘special’ events because they are outside of the host’s normal business, program, or activity.

Special events are generally hospitality or entertainment-based, and are therefore of a social, rather than business, nature. That’s not to say they don’t still have business objectives; while some are purely celebratory, many are held for the purpose of marketing, advertising, promotion, and sales.

Each of these broad categories within special events is actually made up of many different types of events. Let’s look at each one individually.

Private events

Parties and celebrations

Typically, when people think of private events they just think of parties and celebrations; receptions, dinners, birthdays, bar/bat mitzvahs, weddings, and anniversaries.

Yet, technically, a private event just means one that is aimed at a specific audience of invited guests, i.e. not open to everyone. Therefore, within the private events category of special events, there are also several sub-categories.

Brand communications events

Certain types of brand communications events are private events, such as retail events, launches, fashion shows, award ceremonies, openings, and premieres. These are, for the most part, held for invited guests only. So while brand events make up their own sector of the event industry, they sit under the umbrella of special events; some in the private events category and others, as we’ll see below, in public events or fairs & festivals.

Charity / non-profit events

Similarly, charity events and fundraisers make up another large sector of the events industry, but these also come under the umbrella of special events. Some, such as gala dinners, are private events aimed at a particular group of major donors, while others, as we see below, are public or sporting events, such as bike rides and marathons.

Therefore, private events can be used to encompass many different types of events; from parties and celebrations, to brand marketing, promotional, and launch events, and also fundraisers and charity galas—all of which are considered private special events.

Public events

Public events are generally held in public spaces, open to the general public, and free to attend or spectate. They typically require the permission or involvement of public officials, such as the Mayor or local council.

Community / national events

These types of events might be small local community events, such as a street party, or large-scale national events, such as the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade. Sometimes, in the case of the Olympics, they are even international events.

Local council / government events

Some public events are local council or government-organized events, held for celebration or entertainment purposes, such as Royal weddings, Presidential inaugurations, New Year’s Eve celebrations, official commemorative events, street parties, and town festivals.

Parades / festivals / demonstrations

Others, such as parades, public performances, non-commercial festivals, rallies and protests—everything from Gay Pride to World Zombie Day and Chinese New Year Festivals—might be organized by community groups or political, religious, and non-profit organizations in order to celebrate, educate, or demonstrate.

Fairs & festivals

Conventions / exhibitions

While some public events are also fairs and festivals, not all fairs and festivals are public events.

When a convention, exhibition, fair, or festival is aimed at consumers rather than trade, such as Britain & Ireland’s Next Top Model Live in the UK or the various international Star Trek conventions, it is classified as a special event.

While you could argue that these are still a type of public event because anyone can attend, as long as you pay the entry fee, many of these events are held in private venues—convention centers or exhibition halls—rather than public spaces. Therefore, because they are neither free nor held in a public space, they sit within their own category of special events known as fairs and festivals.

Commercial festivals

This category also includes commercially-operated festivals. These events might take place in a public space, but are created as for-profit events, often by a private company who has simply hired the location from the council. Some of these events will be free to attend, and so are often considered public events, but the primary purpose is for the organizers to make a profit by selling products, food & beverages, or entertainment.

Sporting events

National events

The sporting events category of special events includes many nationally and internationally renowned events. In the US these include the NFL Super Bowl, the Kentucky Derby, and the US Open, and in Europe, the Formula 1 Monaco Grand Prix, Wimbledon Tennis Championships, and Le Tour de France.

Local events

At a local level, there are also many different types of sporting events, such as boat races, rodeos, bike rides, marathons, and equestrian events, all of which come under the umbrella of special events.

Characteristics of a Successful Event

Event success is mixed. The nonprofit sector is full of legend about tremendously lucrative events and stories of unmitigated disasters.

What makes the difference in event success? Here are seven things successful events have in common:

Solid objectives:

The most successful events start with clear objectives in place. You have to know exactly what you are trying to accomplish and how this event fits into your strategy before you create the event. Are you hoping to get new donors?  Do you want to improve your donor retention?  Are you looking for support for a new initiative?

The skinny:

Make sure you include the objective of the event in your initial planning. It will help you create the most effective and efficient format.

Adherence to your brand:

While “brand” isn’t a word used we use very often in the nonprofit arena, it is more important than ever to distinguish the personality and values of your organization. And your events will only really work if they embody that ethos. If your brand is about being a cutting edge organization on environmental policy, you wouldn’t hold a golf tournament fundraiser, right?

The skinny: The design of your event has to carry through your brand in order to attract supporters that will turn into prospects for longer-term support.

The right resources: Events are an expensive way to raise money.  Return on investment numbers vary wildly, but one thing is for sure: they are almost always more expensive than you think. Once staff time is included in the calculation, many events actually lose money. And the opportunity cost is high. Events take valuable staff and volunteer time away from other kinds of fundraising.

The skinny: Make sure you have budgets in place before any event details are even considered. These budgets should include staff time and direct costs, as well as revenue projections so that you can calculate an expected return on investment from the beginning.

Volunteer involvement: While staff can carry the ball in many forms of fundraising, events need volunteer involvement in order to really thrive. Not only does this reduce the investment of staff time, but it also activates people who really believe in your cause to inspire others to come to your event. It feels more authentic, more social, and frankly, more of a fun time if there is peer-to-peer involvement.

The skinny: For nearly any event, consider having a host committee. This isn’t about arranging the flowers. It’s about knowing the right people who will get the right people in the room for your cause.

Keeping to your plan: It’s so easy to get caught up in the excitement of an event and add or subtract things as the momentum grows. But your event can’t afford to be everything to everyone. For example, if you are having an event to thank long-term donors and improve retention, it’s tempting to add a paddle raiser or silent auction while this group is together. But that sends mixed messages that could really backfire on your original goal.

The skinny: Keep you original objectives front and center. Don’t add or delete any details without first going back to measure against your original goals.

How To Locate A Dog Bite Lawyer

Dog Bite Laws: What Is Breed Specific Legislation?

Dog attacks can be a real and serious problem in communities across the country, but addressing dangerous and potentially dangerous dogs can be a confusing and touchy issue. Breed-specific legislation (BSL) is the blanket term for laws that either regulate or ban certain dog breeds in an effort to decrease dog attacks on humans and other animals. However, the problem of dangerous dogs will not be remedied by the “quick fix” of breed-specific laws—or, as they should truly be called, breed-discriminatory laws.

Who Is Impacted by Breed-Specific Laws?

Regulated breeds typically comprise the “pit bull” class of dogs, including American Pit Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers and English Bull Terriers. In some areas, regulated breeds also include a variety of other dogs like American Bulldogs, Rottweilers, Mastiffs, Dalmatians, Chow Chows, German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers or any mix of these breeds—and dogs who simply resemble these breeds.

Many states, including New York, Texas and Illinois, favor laws that identify, track and regulate dangerous dogs individually—regardless of breed—and prohibit BSL. However, more than 700 U.S. cities have enacted breed-specific laws.

What kinds of dogs are included in breed-specific laws?

Breed-specific legislation always targets pit bulls, the premier fighting breed. This class of dogs is comprised of several breeds: American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier and Staffordshire bull terrier. The American bulldog can also be classified within this group, as they share a common gene pool and are close cousins. The breed standard for the American bulldog, Scott-type, was developed by crossing early Johnson lines with the American pit bull terrier.

Much less commonly, breed-specific ordinances target rottweilers, the second most lethal dog breed in the United States. Some cities also incorporate additional fighting and bull-baiting breeds, such as the presa canario, cane corso, dogo argentino and other pit bull-mastiff derivatives. Yet, these instances are rare. The focal point of breed-specific legislation has always been pit bulls because this class of dogs is the most common and negatively impacts communities the most.

Wolf-dog hybrids fall into a special class due to their mixture of being part undomesticated. The regulation of wolf hybrids often occurs on a state-level for this reason. States like Alaska, Michigan, Massachusetts and Maryland ban their ownership. When state law is silent on this issue, some cities do incorporate wolf hybrids into their breed-specific ordinances. Notably, all three major military divisions prohibit pit bulls, rottweilers and wolf hybrids in privatized housing.

Visual breakdown

To show how these ordinances are applied across several hundred different dog breeds, we analyzed our estimated U.S. jurisdictions with breed-specific laws. Of the 860 cities that regulate specific dog breeds, 100% target pit bulls. The second most regulated breed, rottweilers, were named in only 7% of these ordinances. Followed by wolf hybrids and presa canarios, each named in 3% and mastiff variations, American bulldogs and doberman pinschers, each named in 2%.

There are several reasons why breed-specific bans and restrictions are not a responsible approach to dog bite prevention:

  • Breed-specific laws can be difficult to enforce, especially when a dog’s breed can’t easily be determined or if it is of mixed breed.

Frequently, breed-specific legislation focuses on dogs with a certain appearance or physical characteristics, instead of an actual breed. “Pit bulls” are the most frequent targets of breed-specific legislation despite being a general type rather than a breed; other breeds also are sometimes banned, including Rottweilers, Dobermans and boxers. However, it is extremely difficult to determine a dog’s breed or breed mix simply by looking at it. A study conducted by Maddie’s Fund, a national shelter initiative, showed that even people very familiar with dog breeds cannot reliably determine the primary breed of a mutt, and dogs often are incorrectly classified as “pit bulls”. Because identification of a dog’s breed with certainty is prohibitively difficult, breed-specific laws are inherently vague and very difficult to enforce.

  • Breed-specific legislation is discriminatory against responsible owners and their dogs.

By generalizing the behaviors of dogs that look a certain way, innocent dogs and pet owners suffer. BSL can lead to the euthanasia of innocent dogs that fit a certain “look,” and to responsible pet owners being forced to move or give up dogs that have never bitten or threatened to bite. Furthermore, dogs that are considered to be of a “dangerous breed” may already be serving the community in positions such as police work, military operations, rescue purposes, and as service animals. Contrary to being a liability, these animals are assets to society; however they, too, suffer due to misinformation and breed-based stereotypes.

  • Puppy socialization prepares dogs for training and interactionBreed bans do not address the social issue of irresponsible pet ownership.

Dogs are more likely to become aggressive when they are unsupervised, unneutered, and not socially conditioned to live closely with people or other dogs. Banning a specific breed can give a community a false sense of security, and deemphasize to owners of other breeds the importance of appropriate socialization and training, which is a critical part of responsible pet ownership. In enacting breed-specific legislation, cities and states will spend money trying to enforce ineffective bans and restrictions rather than implementing proven solutions, such as licensing and leash laws, and responding proactively to owners of any dog that poses a risk to the community.

Argument against breed specific laws, but conceding that other corrective measures must be taken

A large group of organizations and experts believes, “do nothing to the dogs, but educate dog owners, children and the elderly, enact strong criminal laws prohibiting dangerous behavior on the part of dog owners, and gather more information about the problem.”

A respected group of canine professionals took this position in the authoritative paper entitled, A Community Approach to Dog Bite Prevention. They advocated dealing with the epidemic by instituting a combination of animal control ordinances and educational efforts, as well as more accurate reporting of dog attacks. They opposed breed bans on the ground that any dog could be a bad dog, that it is too difficult to identify breeds like pit bulls, and that people with bad intentions will turn harmless breeds into killer breeds to stay one step ahead of the law.

The following points are often contended by those who oppose breed bans:

  • The USA generally does not favor the restriction and punishment of the masses based on the actions of a few.
  • Focusing legislation on dogs that are “vicious” distracts attention from the real problem, which is irresponsible owners.
  • These very breeds as a whole have proven their stability and good canine citizenry by becoming search and rescue dogs, therapy dogs working inside hospitals, herding dogs and family companions for years.
  • Banning one so-called dangerous breed will merely hasten the upswing in popularity of some other breed that will be used for vicious attacks on people and other animals.
  • There is no valid reason to deprive animal lovers of their well behaved pets.
  • The reports and statistics are flawed. Among other things, a dog bite victim is usually unable to identify the breed of dog that bit him or her. Therefore, victims will name the type of dog that currently is on people’s minds as being the dangerous dog.

Argument in support of breed restrictions as opposed to bans

Many authorities say, “teach people dog safety, regulate by passing tougher civil and criminal laws, and restrict by keeping certain breeds away from the wrong people, places and situations.”

This group agrees with the “community approach” but would go further, eliminating the “one bite rule,” requiring insurance as a condition for ownership of certain types of dogs, toughening the dog control laws, criminalizing the failure to stop a dog attack in progress, and keeping dangerous dogs away from the wrong people, places and situations.

It is now abundantly clear that the bigger, more powerful breeds have no purpose or place in crowded urban settings. In states like California, however, it is illegal for cities to regulate dogs in any manner that is specific as to breed. In other words, no city is allowed to make Presa Canarios, Rottweilers or pit bulls “against the law.” In fact, cities are not allowed to regulate those dogs in any way whatsoever, unless the regulation applies to all dogs. (See California’s prohibition against laws based on breed.)

You might wonder why it is illegal to own a goat or a chicken in a crowded city, but perfectly fine to own a man-eating dog! It makes absolutely no sense. In fact, the laws that makes breed specific legislation illegal are not only illogical, but also hypocritical. The ban against breed specific legislation can hurt dog owners by making it seem legal to own any kind of dog they want, in any setting. Society seems to say to prospective dog owners, “go ahead and get any dog you want.” However, if something happens because that dog was inappropriate, then society may put the dog owner in jail — possibly for life. The prosecution of Knoller and Noel for the horrific mauling of Diane Whipple was a breed specific prosecution. Quite correctly, the prosecutors showed that the breed of dog that killed Whipple was dangerous and totally inappropriate for a crowded apartment building in a crowded city. However, is it fair to keep cities from regulating the kinds of breeds that people keep, and yet allow prosecutors to throw the book at people who keep giant, cattle herding dogs like Presa Canarios in their apartments? If breed specific prosecutions are legal — and they certainly should be! — then breed specific regulations also should be legal.

Posted inLegal

Choose An Electrical Contractor When Considering Electrical Panel Upgrades And Repairs

Electrical Panel Upgrade

What Is an Electrical Panel Upgrade?

Not sure what an electrical panel upgrade is? That’s okay because you are not alone. Most homeowners are unfamiliar with this type of electrical service, and few know when they are due for it. First of all, an electrical panel is the component of your electrical system that receives the electricity that is coming into your home from the power grid. It also transfers that energy to circuits, which then distribute power throughout your home. An electrical panel typically lasts between 25 to 40 years before needing to be replaced.

As your home ages and technology advances, your electrical panel may need to be upgraded. That means that your current panel needs to have its capacity increased so that it can handle your home’s electricity demand. Panel capacity is measured in amperage (amps). If you currently have a 100-amp service, it may need to be upgraded to a 150 or 200-amp service.

When to Upgrade Your Electrical Panel?

There are two primary indications that you should upgrade your electrical panel. The first is if you have been experiencing electrical problems in your home.

Common electrical problems that may indicate your need for electrical panel replacement include:

Your lights are flickering – Your everyday electrical appliances like your AC and refrigerator use more electricity than you’d think. If your electrical grid is spread too thin your flickering lights will be one of the first signs of the need for electrical panel replacement.

Your breakers trip frequently – One tripped circuit here and there isn’t anything to write home about, but if you’re noticing that this happens all too often then contact our Los Angeles electrical panel replacement professionals.

You have to turn off one appliance to use another – In a properly functioning electrical grid, there shouldn’t be a trade-off in power for one electrical appliance if another is turned on or off.

Your breakers will not stay reset – It’s possible that your breakers aren’t functioning to the best of their abilities and while this could be fixed, it could also be a sign for electrical panel replacement.

Your appliances are running at less than full power – Look out for appliances that are shutting off or not starting all together and if you notice anything is off the get in touch with our Los Angeles electrical panel replacement technicians.

You feel tingling or mild shock when touching switches or appliances – Your electrical grid shouldn’t produce any shocks or heat and if it does, then you’re in line for an upgrade.

You hear sizzling, crackling, or buzzing coming from receptacles – While electricity may seem to do everything, it’s supposed to do so silently.

The second indication that you require a panel upgrade is if you are expecting to significantly increase the electricity demand in your home. For example, you are getting ready to add something to your home that requires a lot of electricity, such as an HVAC system, hot tub, or electric dryer. Or perhaps, you are planning to build on a room to your home. More space means more electricity is needed for things like lighting and air conditioning. Both of these scenarios point to your need for a panel upgrade.


There is nothing more essential than the electrical system in your home, and safety matters above all else. We’ll be there to help you take good care of your home and all of the facets of your electrical system.

Improve Your Household With Panel Upgrades

you probably have already begun to notice the signs. Homeowners in need of electrical panel upgrades will have to unplug one appliance to use another, blow fuses frequently, and just don’t have enough power to take care of today’s needs.

Older homes have charm but can rarely keep up with modern day demand for electricity. You’ll notice benefits such as:

One of the immediate perks many homeowners don’t even think about is the fact that this increases the value and the ability to sell a home much easier. Even if you’re not planning on selling anytime soon, there’s nothing wrong with maximizing the value. Should the day arrive that you do want to sell, you’ll be able to maximize the asking price and sell quicker.

Stop having the issues that are symptoms of an outdated panel. This includes flickering lights, appliances that burn out, and surges.

Make better use of your existing electrical system. Today’s demands include watching TV in multiple rooms, while charging multiple electronic gadgets, and other tasks that are a high draw of electricity. The only way for an older home with an older panel to keep up is to get updated.

You can also lower your homeowner’s insurance with this upgrade. Since this lowers the likelihood of a panel related fire, this will be reflected in your insurance premiums.


There are plenty of options available to you for home upgrades. While many are fun and exciting luxuries, the important ones are the ones that can improve your at-home living experience.


When you hire team to conduct your panel upgrade for you, you can feel confident knowing that you hired the right professionals for the job. In every service that provide, main objective is to provide customers with the most reliable, safe, and efficient electrical system possible. are honored by the fact that so many local property owners trust with their electrical maintenance needs. will honor that trust by putting best effort forward in order to provide you with the highest quality services possible.

The Importance of Your Electrical Panel

The electrical panel of your home is vitally important. Electricity from the power grid enters your home at the electrical panel. This electricity is then sent to the various circuits within your property. As such, if your electrical panel is damaged or insufficient for your energy needs, the entirety of your electrical system will malfunction and under-perform.

When to Conduct an Electrical Panel Upgrade

In modern homes, demand more electricity for devices and appliances than ever did in the past. Unfortunately, many older electrical panels were not designed to provide this amount of energy. If you notice that your electrical system is not operating reliably, it may be because your electrical panel needs to be upgraded.

Common signs that your electrical panel is insufficient for your energy needs, include:

Routinely tripping circuit breakers

Dimming and flickering lights

Excessive use of power strips or extension cords

Because these are signs that your electrical system is being overloaded, they are also indications that there may be a safety hazard to your home. An electrical panel upgrade can resolve all of these issues.

If you are conducting any major remodeling and adding a new circuit to your home, you should consider upgrading your electrical panel as well. Any major increase in electrical demand can overload your panel and cause sub-optimal performance.

Electric control panel enclosure for power and distribution electricity. Uninterrupted, electrical voltage.


Sometimes the most important and pivotal parts of how a business runs are taken for granted. Take your WiFi, for example. You probably rely heavily on WiFi and Internet access, but you don’t spend your time thinking about it… unless there’s a problem, that is.

Electrical panels are critical for the function, safety, and operation of many commercial applications and businesses. However, a lot of business owners and industries have one installed and then don’t think about it again unless a problem arises.

Now that we’ve reminded you of your electrical panel, you might be asking yourself what you should be looking for and when it’s best to get an electrical panel upgrade. In this post, we’re going over some of the best reasons for a commercial electrical panel upgrade that you should consider for your own system.


Old electrical panels that haven’t been updated in years or ones that haven’t even been looked at in years are at the top of the list for an electrical panel upgrade. As time goes on, components of your electrical panel are going to wear down. Wires, breakers, fuses, and more can wear down with age, which can lead to problems and damage to the panel.

Your Technology Is Outdated

You might think that outdated technology is the same as age, but that isn’t necessarily the case. Think about the pace that technological advancement has. Technology changes rapidly and significantly in very short periods of time. Something that was state of the art a few years ago is almost always outpaced within a year or two by new technology or advancements.

Upgrade Your Electrical Panel Before You Plug in Decorations

A most wonderful time of the year for house fires, according to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), each holiday season an average of 150 homes are burned, 8 people killed, and 14 injured due to incorrect use of holiday lights.

Before you deck the halls – deck your wall with a new electrical panel

All those lights covering your roof, windows, trees and bushes might not seem as powerful as your jumbo-size snow blower, but multiplied by each strand and in combination with your Stay-Puft size inflatable snowman, they can put quite a load on your electrical system. Even seemingly modest plans can strain the system of older homes. In fact, if your home is more than a mere 20 years old, chances are good your breaker box and meter are no longer up-to-date, and would greatly benefit from a 100 amp or higher meter and breaker box boost.

Thinking maybe you’ll return those extra lights with that ugly holiday sweater?

Those Christmas lights aren’t the only thing stressing your electrical panel. Chances are your merry home is also decked out with large heating and air systems, multiple flat screen TVs and refrigerators, dryers, dishwashers, microwave and toaster ovens, hair dryers, and an endless array of mobile devices sucking down juice, combined requiring more power than many older homes have the electrical capacity to manage.

Why don’t I just bump up my breakers?

Yikes. Occasionally homeowners burn out on resetting a breaker, replacing it with one larger than the wire it’s connected to is rated to carry. This is never a good idea, as it increases the possibility of overload, and is why today’s current electrical panels require GFCIs (ground fault circuit interrupters) to further protect against overload and electrocution risks. If you’re experiencing issues with repeatedly tripping breakers, have your box professionally inspected to identify issues.

How can you know for sure it’s time to upgrade?

You live in an older home.

Electrical panels are only designed to last about 25-40 years. Worse, some somewhat newer panels house defective/recalled components the average homeowner is ignorant of. Complicating matters, homes pre-1950 were often build with only 30, 50, or 60 amp service, which is just not enough power for today’s home.

Lights dim when large appliances turn on.

If the lights in your home dim or flicker when your HVAC, microwave, hairdryer, or other energy sucking appliance is switched on, it’s a dead giveaway of the need for an upgrade.

Breakers trip frequently – or not at all.

Worn out panels are more susceptible surges. If you’re resetting breakers a few times a week, your box is in need of some serious attention. Also, if breaker resets do not restore power – or your box/breakers doesn’t shut off during overload –  you may have a faulty service panel.

Signs of electrical fire within the panel.

Dark discoloration – scorch marks – indicate a need for professional assistance right away.

Self Fullerton Mold Remediation Versus Professional Fullerton Mold Remediation

Steps for Effective Toxic Mold Removal

Toxic molds and fungi are a significant source of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that create indoor air quality (IAQ) problems. Toxic mold growth produces dangerous mycotoxins and infectious airborne mold spores which often cause serious health problems to residents and workers.

Learn the techniques and procedures recommended for safe and successful toxic mold inspection, testing, and remediation – whether the property owner prefers “do it yourself” or to hire a Certified Mold Remediator (CMR). How? Read mold remediation self-help books and visit internet mold advice websites, plus get professional guidance.

Locate and fix all sources of mold-causing water intrusion such as recurring flooding, plumbing leaks, leaky roofs or siding, blocked air conditioning condensation drain lines, and high indoor humidity (e.g. above 50 to 60 percent).

Inspect and mold test inside, above, and below each water-penetrated ceiling, wall, and floor with a fiber optics inspection device, a hidden moisture meter, do-it-yourself mold test kits, or inspection by a Certified Mold Inspector (CMI), and by cutting out small core dry wall samples from the water-impacted surfaces. Look in the middle and back of each core for visible mold growth.

Find and locate all toxic mold infestations (visible and hidden) in the entire home or building by thorough, all-around mold inspection and mold testing (with mold laboratory analysis and mold species identification of collected mold samples).

Mold Infestation

Where does mold come from?

Mold is a natural piece of the environment and can be useful for thriving wildlife. It breaks down dead organic matter, for example, leaves and trees, but when mold makes it way indoors, it wreaks havoc

When there is mold infestation in your home is mostly likely due to the moisture in the air or any surfaces that are wet. It doesn’t matter what type of mold it is, all mold cannot grow without water or moisture.

Things you should know about Mold.

There are health effects associated with mold exposure.

There is no guarantee to permanently remove mold from your property, only prevention.

If there is mold, clean up and eliminating the source of moisture feeding the mold prevents it from growing. Clean-up within 24-48 hours after detection.

Repair the water/moisture problem.

Reduce indoor humidity to 30-60%.

Mold can be found and grown on any surface; mold on hard surfaces can be easily cleaned with water and some sort of detergent but mold on absorbent materials will have to be replaced by your local restoration company.

Furniture Mold Cleaning

Water and mold can not only affect the structure of your home, but also your belongings. If your home has suffered damage from a leak or flood, it’s important to check all indoor furnishings and fixtures for signs of mold damage.

utilize several methods of cleaning your contents, including:

Dry Cleaning – Used for cleaning light residues or to pre-clean prior to wet cleaning.

Wet Cleaning – An effective cleaning method for removing moderate to heavy residues.

Spray and Wipe -Effective for items that can’t withstand wet cleaning.

Foam Cleaning – Used for upholstery fabrics that might shrink or bleed if wet cleaned.

Abrasive Cleaning – Involves agitation of the surface being cleaned.

Immersion Cleaning – Contents are dipped into a bath of the cleaning product

Facts About Proper Mold Removal

The weather here can be many things, depending on the time of year, and even the time of day. Hot, muggy summers can offer pristine conditions for mold growth. Likewise, a frigid winter causing pipes to burst and homes to flood can equally encourage mold growth if the water is not removed quickly and effectively.

Here are some fast facts about the mold removal process:

Mold can grow very quickly. Some experts believe mold can start growing in 24 to 48 hours after a flood if standing water is still present. Environmental factors like temperature and air movement also play a role in the potential growth. This is what it is important to get a professional water restoration company into the space quickly. They will start the drying process immediately after a flood or other water loss, often even before the insurance adjuster arrives on site.

Restoration companies, like Total Restoration, work very closely with insurance adjusters. That means project estimators have a very good idea what areas have been impacted by mold, what it will cost to remove it, and what the insurance company is going to cover.

Spraying bleach on mold is not a recommended way of dealing with the problem. You cannot kill mold in that sense, because dead mold spores and just as dangerous as life ones. Mold is mold, and can be toxic in both forms. Instead, mold removal experts at Total Restoration work to eliminate the source of the mold and return your property to a safe state.

The best restoration companies abide by detailed industry standards for work like mold removal. This means there are best practices established industry-wide, and the process is proven to work time and time again. There are very effective chemicals, antimicrobials, and other products used during the mold removal and remediation process to be sure the spores are gone for good, and not going to grow back in the same place, or elsewhere.

Mold illness is a real thing. Not every person is susceptible to mold-related illnesses, but some are, and the effects can be serious. The main mold-related illness is called Chronic Inflammatory Disease, and it is the direct result of exposure to mold spores. Research shows about 25% of people are genetically predisposed to CIRS. Beyond CIRS, mold spores can also trigger asthma flare-ups, rashes, cough, and other physical responses.

Bottom line, if you’ve found mold, don’t stress. There are a lot of factors involved, but there are also proven ways to very effectively fix the problem quickly. It is key if you think there is mold in your home or business that it be addressed by experts. Trying to remediate or remove mold on your own could cause the spores to spread and contaminate other parts of the building, and it’s likely a problem that will not disappear on its own.

Mold Found in an apartment Unit

Hoarders come in all shapes and sizes, involving many different types of items from trash to treasures, like rare books and other contents. You can find a hoarder in any place from the cheapest apartments in town to the most expensive neighborhoods. If your friends, family, and loved ones have a hoarding problem and you need someone to come trash out the place for you to start from square one, you know who to call.

Water damage creates a perfect breeding ground for mold growth.

With all of the storms we have been having lately we have been inundated with water damage jobs and a lot of Restoration companies area are backlogged. If you are having to wait for someone to come to take care of your water damage areas the is a good chance that mold growth can occur and create a larger, more serious issue. Mold and mildew can start forming in as little too 24 to 48 hours. Make sure to keep the area as clean and ventalated as possible. Keep in mind that just because you don’t see mold, doesn’t mean it’s not there.

Mold Removal vs. Mold Remdiation

In reality, it is nearly impossible to remove all mold in a particular area. That’s not a bad thing. Mold in and of itself is not bad as we generally have it thought out in our heads. For example, Some molds are used to make some delicious types of cheese. Mold generally becomes a problem when it starts to grow on surfaces inside buildings. But outdoors, we encounter mold spores almost on a continual basis.

Inside exposure to mold is most dangerous to small children, those with severe respiratory issues, and those with weakened immune systems (for example someone receiving chemotherapy to treat cancer.) It should also be noted, that in some cases exposure to mold can lead to the development of asthma.

best way to avoid the development of mold are (Better Homes and Gardens):

Use dehumidifiers, fans, and open windows to help reduce the moisture in your home. Be especially vigilant during hot, humid months.

Fix plumbing leaks as soon as possible.

Do what you can to prevent rainwater from seeping into your home. Check potential problem areas regularly.

Clean the fabrics in your home routinely and keep them dry.

Store items in dry, well-ventilated areas.

Ways To Prevent Mold In The Winter

Although seasonal outdoor conditions have little effect on mold growth inside enclosed environments of a home, airborne spores that spawn mold may infiltrate the house any time of the year. Controlling certain factors specific to the cold season can at least reduce the odds of household mold contamination

tips preventing mold in the winter:

1. Run ceiling fans in the reverse (clockwise) mode for winter. A ceiling fan rotating clockwise pulls warm air upwards and pushes it across the ceiling and down walls and windows. This air circulation dries out condensation, eliminating another source of mold triggering moisture.

2. Humidify sparingly. Winter air is often dry and irritating to certain individuals. To alleviate these symptoms, humidifiers are commonly utilized to add water vapor to indoor air. Maintain indoor humidity levels at 60% or below to discourage mold.

3. Dry wet areas. Many parts of the house tend to be damp in the winter- windows, mirrors, pipes- due to condensation. By quickly removing moisture with a towel it prevents them from becoming potential for mold.

4. Check the attic. While your roof shingles may shed summer rain effectively, stationary seepage from melting snow on the roof is another matter. Roof leakage due to snow melt or ice dams on the roof is a common cause of mold growth in the attic.

5. Upgrade your insulation. Some house have minimal or no insulation inside exterior walls. Condensation forms on and inside cold, uninsulated walls in contact with warm, moist indoor air. 

The Mold Mitigation & Remediation Process

When there’s a water intrusion, like a roof leak or leaking water line, mold can quickly become a problem in your home or business. Mold can affect your health and can also cause significant damage to your property

Inspection & Damage Assessment           

Your property will be carefully inspected for signs of mold using technology designed to detect mold and hidden water sources. Mold feeds on cellulose and water which can be hidden from plain view.

Mold Containment                                 

Various containment procedures will be placed to prevent the spread of mold and isolate the contaminated area with physical barriers and negative air pressure to keep the mold spores from spreading during the cleanup process.

Outsourced Bookkeeping Can Save Your Company From Financial Ruin

Can a bookkeeper be called an accountant?

What’s the Difference Between Accountants and Bookkeepers?

Bookkeeping is a direct record of all purchases and sales that your business conducts, while accounting is a subjective look at what that data means for your business.

An accountant can be considered a bookkeeper, but a bookkeeper cannot be an accountant without proper certification.

To know whether you need a financial professional, look at your business as it is now and how you want it to grow financially, and decide if you can manage that on your own.

Staying on top of your finances is a key part of being a successful small business owner. As such, it’s important that your financial data is current and accurate so that you have the tools you need to make sound business decisions and ensure healthy cash flow.

As your business grows to include more customers, vendors and employees, it can get more difficult to keep track of your finances on your own.

When the bookkeeping and accounting tasks for your small business are too much to handle by yourself, it’s time to hire help. But do you need a bookkeeper or accountant? The terms are sometimes used interchangeably, and there can be some overlap in what they do, but there are distinct differences.

Here’s what you need to know to decide which is best for you.

The function of accounting

Accounting is a high-level process that uses financial information compiled by a bookkeeper or business owner, and produces financial models using that information.

The process of accounting is more subjective than bookkeeping, which is largely transactional.

Accounting is comprised of:

  • Preparing adjusting entries (recording expenses that have occurred but aren’t yet recorded in the bookkeeping process)
  • Preparing company financial statements
  • Analyzing costs of operations
  • Completing income tax returns
  • Aiding the business owner in understanding the impact of financial decisions

The process of accounting provides reports that bring key financial indicators together. The result is a better understanding of actual profitability, and an awareness of cash flow in the business. Accounting turns the information from the ledger into statements that reveal the bigger picture of the business, and the path the company is progressing on. Business owners will often look to accountants for help with strategic tax planning, financial forecasting, and tax filing.

The function of bookkeeping

Bookkeeping is the process of recording daily transactions in a consistent way, and is a key component to building a financially successful business.

Bookkeeping is comprised of:

  • Recording financial transactions
  • Posting debits and credits
  • Producing invoices
  • Maintaining and balancing subsidiaries, general ledgers, and historical accounts
  • Completing payroll

Maintaining a general ledger is one of the main components of bookkeeping. The general ledger is a basic document where a bookkeeper records the amounts from sale and expense receipts. This is referred to as posting and the more sales that are completed, the more often the ledger is posted. A ledger can be created with specialized software, a computer spreadsheet, or simply a lined sheet of paper.

The complexity of a bookkeeping system often depends on the the size of the business and the number of transactions that are completed daily, weekly, and monthly. All sales and purchases made by your business need to be recorded in the ledger, and certain items need supporting documents. The IRS lays out which business transactions require supporting documents on their website.

The bookkeeper role vs the accountant role

Bookkeepers and accountants sometimes do the same work. But in general, a bookkeeper’s first task is to record transactions and keep you financially organized, while accountants provide consultation, analysis, and are more qualified to advise on tax matters.

Bookkeeper credentials

Typically, bookkeepers aren’t required to have any formal education. To be successful in their work, bookkeepers need to be sticklers for accuracy, and knowledgeable about key financial topics. Usually, the bookkeeper’s work is overseen by either an accountant or the small business owner whose books they are doing. So a bookkeeper can’t call themselves an “accountant.”

Accountant credentials

To qualify for the title of an accountant, generally an individual must have a bachelor’s degree in accounting. For those that don’t have a specific degree in accounting, finance degrees are often considered an adequate substitute.

Accountants, unlike bookkeepers, are also eligible to acquire additional professional certifications. For example, accountants with sufficient experience and education can obtain the title of Certified Public Accountant (CPA), one of the most common types of accounting designations. To become a CPA, an accountant must pass the Uniform Certified Public Accountant exam and possess experience as a professional accountant.

When to Use a Bookkeeper Instead of an Accountant

Most accountants freely admit that bookkeeping is neither their strength nor is it how they want to spend their time. They are much more interested in the big picture and can’t really devote themselves to a year’s worth of debits and credits. Also, they’re probably more proficient tax software than in bookkeeping software.

Likewise, bookkeepers can build accurate financial statements, but are not really the experts in looking at all of the combined sources of income and assets to give tax advice. That’s best left to a qualified accountant.

How can bookkeepers be the perfect partners to an accountant? By making sure a file arrives on their desk with all asset and liability accounts reconciled, revenue and expenses posted correctly, and most importantly, retained earnings unchanged from the previous year. Ideally, the accountant will be immediately able to sit down with the business owner and discuss year-end strategies. A perfect file would have less than five year-end adjusting entries.

Similarly, an accountant can do many things to assist the bookkeeper. Being available for guidance and advice on compliance issues throughout the year is invaluable. Also, feedback at tax time will help reduce future year-end entries. The best accountants I work with contact me before they do the year-end entries to tap into my knowledge of the file and ensure their accounting entries won’t mess up my bookkeeping!

In the end, the real winner when bookkeepers and accountants work in harmony are the business owners. They can get on with running their business while a professional partnership takes care of the finances!

Professional Or Do It Yourself Carpet Cleaning

Cleaning tips for your carpet

It is bound to happen that one accidentally spills or drops something sticky on a carpet. The important thing to do then, is to deal with the stain or the spillage immediately. If not action is taken, the stain will penetrate into the carpet and make it harder to be removed.

things to keep in mind if an accident occurs:

Deal with the stain immediately.

Ladle fluids carefully with a spoon.

Dilute with cold water if necessary.

Dab away – do not rub – fluids and other spillage with paper towels or a clean cotton cloth.

Work from the edge towards the middle of the spillage.

Use a very small amount of detergent and cold water, but only if necessary.

Brush lightly with a clothes brush if needed.

Repeat from step 2 if necessary.

It might be necessary to dry the wet area with a fan or a hair drier at low speed.

Finish the work by restoring the pile with a clothes brush (in the direction of the pile).

If you want to be on the safe side, it is a good idea to have a gentle and powerful stain remover at home.By acting quickly you increase the chance ofsaving your carpet and completely removing the stain without having to take it to a carpet cleaner.Keep in mind that a stain remover should be gentle on fabrics so as to not damage the fibers.

Some examples of common stains and how to remove them:

Asphalt: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild solvent and dab it gently. Repeat until the stain is gone. Dab/wipe it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Beer: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. Add a little mild detergent and dab gently. If the stain remains, try a mild vinegar solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Blood: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. Dilute any remaining stain with tepid water and absorb the remaining stain. Add a little tepid water and washing-up liquid to a cloth and dab gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry. NOTE! If the blood is still fresh, use cold water.

Burn mark: Examine the burn to see how deep it is, it may be possible to carefully trim away the burnt section of the carpet’s pile with nail scissors.

Candlewax: Lay ice cubes on the wax until it hardens enough for you to be able to break it. Then use a stain remover if required to remove any remaining traces of the wax.

Chewinggum: Lay ice cubes on the chewing gum until it hardens enough for you to be able to break it. Then use a stain remover if required to remove any remaining traces of the chewing gum.

Chocolate: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Coca-Cola: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Coffee: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Repeat until the stain is gone. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Cookingfat: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Glue: Wet the entire stain with a colourless cotton cloth soaked in vinegar or alcohol. Then carefully dab and dry.

Grease: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild vinegar solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Ice-cream: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. If the stain remains, try dampening a colourless cotton cloth with a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Ink: Coat the stain in hairspray and leave it to dry, then carefully brush the stain away with a solution of water and vinegar.

Juice: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Ketchup: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab agoved. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Lipstick: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. If the stain remains, try dampening a colourless cotton cloth with a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Liquor: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Milk: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Mustard: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Nailvarnish: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Use a colourless cotton cloth and carefully dab with a little nail varnish remover. If the stain remains, add a little detergent, dab gently and follow up with a mild ammonia solution and then a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. ##Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Oil: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Paint: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Shoe polish: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Soft drinks: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild ammonia solution and dab again, follow up with a mild vinegar solution if the stain has not been removed. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Soot: Carefully vacuum up the soot and avoid dragging the nozzle across the carpet.

Tea: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild vinegar solution and dab gently. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Urine/excrement: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth, alternatively carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Then rinse the stain with a mix of water and distilled white vinegar, approx. one tablespoon per 20 cl water. Then carefully wipe off as much as possible from the carpet. If the urine stain is dry when you discover it, still act fast, and take the carpet to a carpet cleaner specialising in oriental carpets. NOTE! Do not use urine remover as this damages the wool in the carpet.

Vomit: Carefully scrape off as much of the stain as possible with a spoon. Dampen a colourless cotton cloth with a mild detergent and dab it gently. If the stain remains, try a mild vinegar solution and dab again. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Wax: Lay blotting paper or a brown paper bag on the stain. Use a warm iron across the blotting paper/paper bag until the wax is absorbed. It is important that you keep the iron moving to avoid burning the carpet.

Wine: Absorb as much of the stain as possible with colourless kitchen paper or a colourless cotton cloth. If the stain remains, try a mild vinegar solution and dab gently. Dab it with a dry cloth until it is dry.

Carpet Cleaning Secrets of the Pros to Try at Home

Never Rub the Stain!

The most common mistake people do when dealing with a stain is to rub it. Professional carpet cleaners say this is the worst thing you can do because it will embed the dirt deeper into the carpet fibres. No doubt this is an instant reaction due to panic, but the first thing you should do is to blot the spill with an absorbent paper towel or napkin, applying gentle pressure.

The professionals advise us to have these essential items available in your home at all times:

Club soda: great for removing beer and wine stains

White distilled vinegar: a mixture of water and vinegar can help you deal with juice stains

Dishwashing liquid: If you don’t have specialised carpet cleaner or are not sure of detergent to use, make a solution of warm water mixed with two drops of dishwashing liquid.

Ammonia: this is a cheap, all-purpose substance for cleaning a wide variety of stains

Wet wipes: use them to blot light stains on your carpet

Remove Chewing Gum with Ice

If you have kids, you have probably already battled with chewing gums stuck to everything in the house, including carpets and upholstery. To remove it, get a few ice cubes and put them on the gum for at least 1 minute. Gum will freeze quickly, and you can get rid of it by scraping it off the carpet with a butter knife or a spoon. You may have to cut a few fibres to save your rug, but it won’t be noticeable, especially after the next deep carpet cleaning.

Dealing with Wax Stains

We all like to use aromatic candles to give the house a pleasant scent. But accidents do happen and it can end with a puddle of wax on the carpet. The best way to clean the stain is to melt the wax.

Importance of Clean Furnishings with Professional Rug and Carpet Cleaning Services

Of all the furnishings in a home, your rug and carpet experience the most direct traffic which contributes to dirt accumulation and general wear and tear. It is important to keep your rugs and carpet clean and well maintained to not only keep it looking new, but also to increase its longevity.

Rid Your Home of Harmful Allergens and Bacteria

Your carpet and area rugs serve an important purpose in the home. They also trap allergens, bacteria, and other particles by acting as giant filters. This keeps harmful contaminants in your carpets and rugs and out of the air you breathe.

But here’s the catch—just like with any filter, your carpet and area rugs become full. If not cleaned regularly, your furnishings can actually be breeding grounds for bacteria. As a result, this can contribute to asthma and chronic allergies. Yikes!

Carpet & Rug Cleaning Can Help Prevent Mold Growth

Especially in areas with high humidity levels, dirty carpets and rugs are at high risk of developing mold growth. In precipitous weather, moisture frequently gets tracked into the home. Therefore, this can sink deep in the carpet fibers if not dried and vacuumed immediately.

Having your carpets and area rugs cleaned regularly can prevent mold and mildew growth, because professional rug and carpet cleaners have high-powered drying tools that annihilate moisture. By eliminating moisture, you can prevent mold growth that can be harmful to your health if ignored for too long.

Things to Look For In Carpet Cleaning Services

If your carpet looks dirty, people might assume that your entire facility is dirty. Foot traffic, soil and spills can quickly age the appearance of your carpet and damage the professional image your facility projects

Some of us would just look up for a name of carpet cleaning companies in the telephone dictionary or online whichever comes first on the list and just hire them without having enough knowledge about the company. Lot of times this would result in bad hire, it is important to understand that not all companies provide the same services. Below is the list of some important questions which should be asked before contracting work to any business.

How long has the company been in business?

An established business will have experience of several years; well established businesses demonstrate knowledge, well trained labor, trust and reliability.

Is business bonded or insured?

A professional business will always have insurance bond that covers them and others in case of damages during work in your building. It demonstrates duty of care towards its employees and safety of your company’s possessions. It also insures legal and good hiring practices of employees.

Do you provide trial services?

Some companies might offer you a free trial of their services to prove you that their methods, equipment and staff both meet your requirements and exceed your expectations.

Finding the best carpet cleaner

The best carpet cleaner is not necessarily the first one!

Most people go straight to the internet when looking for service people in their local area.  You spill something on the carpet or you have family coming over for the holidays.  Suddenly you are in desperate need of the best carpet cleaner you can find.

Naturally, the first thing you do is a search online. You are then confronted with an often confusing array of businesses all vying for your attention. We have all been there, right?  How do you choose? There are some simple questions you can ask to find the best carpet cleaner for your needs and budget.

Search Results: Who do I call to get the best carpet cleaner?

Paid listings

Your first instinct is probably to go with the first three businesses listed in the search results.  However, it may not give you the quality results you are looking for.  Usually in the search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing, the first 3-4 listings are paid advertising.  This does not mean these businesses are not worth considering, but just keep in mind that it may mean that they are paid listings and they will therefore have a large marketing budget and usually these costs are passed on to the consumer through carpet cleaning pricing.

Local listings

Next there are the local search results that take into consideration your search location.  These results will usually give you the contact details for carpet cleaners in your local area.  This is great because often local businesses can come at short notice or even often a local discount as they do not have to factor in travel costs.  However make sure you verify where they are based.  Some of the larger carpet cleaning businesses claim to be from every suburb in a wide area, meaning they probably sub contract out to cleaners in many different areas.  This means you may not get the business you thought you were hiring.

Organic listings

Finally there are pages and pages of free or organic listings.  This is were you can usually find the good, the bad and the ugly! I would recommend considering the businesses listed on the first page and narrow your search down the three or four of these listings to call for a quote.  Keep in mind however that in larger cities where there is a lot of competition, the top three are not necessarily the best carpet cleaners.  They may be on top because they are the best at marketing and SEO rather than carpet cleaning!

Dentist Tooth Whitening And Home-Based Systems

What are the types of dental treatment?

The type of dentist a person needs to visit depends on their age and the oral health condition they have. The most common types of dentistry include general dentistry, family dentistry, cosmetic dentistry, pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, and specialty dentistry.

To ensure you receive the proper care, read about the different types of dentists and the services they offer below:

General Dentistry

Eighty percent of dental practitioners are general dentists. They are concerned with the overall health of teeth and oral hygiene. Instead of specializing in one specific area, general dentists offer:

  • Restorative dentistry, which includes dental implants, dental bridges, dental bonding, inlays, onlays, and dentures
  • Cavity fillings and other tooth decay treatments
  • Dental exams and teeth cleanings
  • Dental X-rays
  • Fluoride treatment
  • Wisdom teeth removal
  • Simple tooth extractions (baby teeth and adult teeth)
  • Cosmetic dentistry

Family Dentistry

Similar to general dentistry, family dentistry focuses on the health and oral hygiene of teeth. Common procedures and treatments include cavity fillings, sealants, teeth cleanings, and gum disease treatment.

Family dentists treat people during every stage of life. This is because people require different dental care throughout life, depending on their age. For example, oral care for a baby or child is different from that of an adult:

  • Dental care for pregnant women and babies
  • Dental care for teens and young adults
  • Dental care for adults
  • Dental care for seniors (65+)

Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic dentistry procedures improve a patient’s smile and self-image. Many general dentists perform cosmetic procedures. However, they must go through additional training after dental school to become certified.

Cosmetic dentistry is not a new practice. However, esthetic treatments are becoming more popular because having an attractive and healthy smile is important to many people.

Common cosmetic procedures and treatments include:

  • Teeth whitening treatment
  • Veneers
  • Gingivectomy (gum contouring)
  • Braces, which are not strictly cosmetic. They create cosmetic results but have many functional aspects as well. These functions include fixing jaw misalignment and crooked teeth, which makes the teeth easier to brush and floss between, ultimately improving a patient’s oral hygiene.

Types of Dental Specialists

There are 9 board-certified dental specialties, but only six focus on individual patient care. General and family dentists provide a wide array of services, while dental specialists are experts in one field of dentistry:


This field of dentistry deals with the periodontium, which are the soft tissues that support and surround the teeth in the mandibular (lower) and maxillary (upper) jawbones.

Periodontists focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth. These dental experts also specialize in the function, overall health, and aesthetics of tissue structure.


The primary role of a prosthodontist is to diagnose and restore missing or damaged oral tissues to proper function. They specialize in dental restorations, which restore missing teeth, decayed teeth, or damaged teeth. About 20 percent of a general dentist’s time is spent on prosthetic services.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

Oral surgeons specialize in treating the esthetic and functional features of the oral and maxillofacial region. Oral surgeries are typically needed because of accidental injury, trauma, disease, deformities, periodontal issues, dental caries, or tooth loss.


Endodontists deal with the dental pulp and periradicular tissues, which are the blood vessels, tissues, and nerves surrounding a tooth’s root. They are highly trained in performing root canals and surgeries for dental pulp diseases. General dentists perform two root canals per week, while endodontists perform 25 per week (on average).


Orthodontists specialize in malocclusion treatment, a condition where the teeth are not positioned correctly in the upper and lower jaws. Malocclusions can lead to an improper bite, such as an overbite or underbite. Orthodontists provide fixed and removable appliances that correct an individual’s bite and realign teeth over time.



Bonding is a treatment that can be used to repair teeth that are decayed, chipped, fractured or discoloured or to reduce gaps between teeth. For this procedure, a dentist mixes composite resin — a type of plastic — into a paste, then tints the mixture to whiten or match the color of your teeth. Several layers of resin are applied to each tooth. Each layer is hardened under an ultraviolet light or laser. Final steps include shaping and polishing the resin material so the finished tooth looks natural and smooth.

Bonding can also be used to build up older teeth to make them appear younger. Bonding is an option for people of all ages, including children, as the resin can be replaced as teeth grow.


A dental brace is a device used to correct the alignment of teeth and bite-related problems (including underbite, overbite, etc.). Braces straighten teeth by exerting steady pressure on the teeth. Learn more about braces and other orthodontic treatments here.

Bridges and Implants

Bridges and implants are two ways to replace a missing tooth or teeth. Bridges are false teeth anchored in place by neighbouring teeth. The bridge consists of two crowns on the anchoring teeth along with the false tooth in the centre. Dental implants are artificial roots used to support replacement teeth.

Crowns and Caps

A crown or cap is a cover that fits over a tooth that has been damaged by decay, broken, badly stained or mis-shaped. It is prepared by your dentist, and usually requires more than one visit to complete.

A crown can be made of acrylic, metal, porcelain, or porcelain bonded to metal. All-porcelain crowns look more like your natural teeth, and therefore are usually used for front teeth, while porcelain bonded to metal is stronger and better for crowns in the back of the mouth. Sometimes all-metal crowns are used for back teeth because of the metal’s strength.

To prepare your tooth for a crown, the tooth is first frozen with anesthesia, and then filed down so the cap can fit over it. An impression of the teeth and gums is made, and a temporary cap is fitted over the tooth until the permanent crown is ready. On your next visit, the dentist will remove the temporary cap and cement the crown onto the tooth. The crown will closely match the colour and shape of your natural teeth.


A severely damaged tooth may need to be extracted. Permanent teeth may also need to be removed for orthodontic treatment.


Dentures are prosthetic devices replacing lost teeth. There are two types of dentures – partial and full. Full dentures are often referred to as “false teeth”. Learn more on our Dentures page.

Fillings and Repairs

Dental fillings and repairs use restorative materials used to repair teeth which have been compromised due to cavities or trauma. More information on fillings can be found here.

Gum Surgery

Periodontal or gum disease is an infection that affects the gums and jaw bone, which can lead to a loss of gum and teeth. There are two major stages — gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the milder and reversible form; periodontal disease is often more severe. In some cases, gum surgery will be required to reverse the effect of the disease.

Oral Cancer Examination

Oral cancer starts in the cells of the mouth, tongue or throat. Oral cancer screening is usually a routine part of a dental examination. In this exam, your dentist will feel for lumps or irregular tissue changes in your neck, head, face, and inside your mouth. Your dentist will also look for sores or discolored tissue in your mouth.

Orthodontic services

Orthodontic services help improve the alignment of the teeth and jaw. Patients who have an overbite, underbite, crossbite, or misaligned teeth may require or seek out orthodontic services to help correct such issues. Examples of orthodontic services include the use of braces, palate expanders, fixed-space maintainers, retainers, headgear, clear aligners, and other specialized dental treatments to improve the alignment of one’s teeth and bite over time.

Diagnostic and preventative dental services

General dentists often provide a wide variety of diagnostic and preventative dental services. This category of dental services is geared towards preserving oral health and avoiding the occurrence of dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, and enamel wear through preventative treatments. Examples of some of the most vital types of diagnostic and preventative services to provide at your practice include X-rays, sealants and fluoride treatments, and of course, routine cleanings and oral exams.

Dental implants

Implants are a fixed alternative to removable dentures. They may be the only option if the loss of teeth has caused the mouth to shrink so it can no longer support dentures.  You can use implants to replace just a single tooth or several teeth. To fit an implant, titanium screws are drilled into the jaw bone to support a crown, bridge or denture.

Replacement parts take time to prepare. This is to ensure that they fit your mouth and other teeth properly. This means they may not be available on your first visit to the dentist. Implants are usually only available privately and are expensive. They’re sometimes available on the NHS for patients who can’t wear dentures or whose face and teeth have been damaged, such as people who have had mouth cancer or an accident that’s knocked a tooth out.